Maseno/Kombewa - Kisumu District

Description of the project location

EcoSan toilet
The green area shows approximately the project area.

Description of the location


The project covers an area of approximately 500 sq. km. which is made up of the Maseno and Kombewa divisions plus the new areas of Dago sub location in East Kisumu location of Winam division, Kanyangwa sub-location in West Asembo location, Bondo District and Gem in Siaya District.

Climatic conditions

The project area has good climate, with rainfall occurring twice a year i.e, March to June (long rains) and October to November (short rains). The average rainfall per year is 1400mm. Temperatures range between 20 and 30 degrees Centigrade.


The area has a good road network. There are two major roads within the project area. The Kisumu – Busia road passes through the area and so does the Kisian – Bondo road. All the main market centres (about 20no.) have telephone links. The farthest point in the project area is about 40 km from Kisumu which, is the province headquarters.


The area has quite a large number of institutions (secondary schools, primary schools, churches, health centres, colleges, e.t.c).

Population size

The area has an approximate population of 122,000 people.
There are two main ethnic groups namely, Luo and Luhya. The Luo form the larger percentage of about 80%.

EcoSan toilet
A community group meeting in the Maseno project area.

Problems encountered during implementation of previous phases

  • Negative cultural factors and attitudes
  • Low education levels
  • Low income (poverty) levels
  • Resistance to change especially by the male folk (traditions)
  • Nature of climate and topography affecting accessibility to some sites

The indigenous potential within the project area justifying continuation

  • A felt need for water and sanitation services
  • Enthusiastic and receptive community
  • Availability of raw materials
  • Abundance of rain and groundwater for exploitation
  • Community integration (homogeneity)
  • Good arable land
  • Good infrastructure