Technologies Promoted

The success of the program’s has largely depended on technology choices that enhance sustainability. These technologies are always selected in regard to appropriateness of the area such as soil structure, ease of use, level of ground, kind of water. At times the community members play a role in choosing technologies, so that the technologies are accepted, owned, and maintained.


KWAHO has developed more than 197 boreholes in Coast, Nyanza and Rift Valley Province. The hydro – geologists assist to carry out geophysical surveys to locate appropriate sites for the boreholes. The boreholes are drilled by KWAHO drilling rig. All the boreholes are installed with Afridev hand pumps. The borehole with afridev hand pump has proved appropriate at the community level .The only limitation being that it depends on availability of ground water with shallow depth.

Water Points /Kiosks

KWAHO has promoted the development of public water points in all provinces. This simple technology which includes drawing water from a pipes scheme. The point /kiosk is a stand pipe with or without a structure. The modes of operations are us follows:

• Operation by an agent of the water supply project

• Operation by members of a group on rotation basis.

• Operation by individual

Spring Protection

Over the years KWAHO has protected springs mainly in Coast and Nyanza Region. The design involves a concrete or masonry head and wing walls with steps to the drawing point. This technology is simple and sustainable, however the challenge observed in regard to spring protecting is:

• Environmental degradation of the catchment area led to reduced yield of the spring.

• No payments are made at the spring thus maintenance becomes a challenge.

• Maintenance of hygiene at the springs was observed to be a problem.

Pumped Installed

The Afridev pump for all boreholes has passed the test of time having been identified as suitable for community management. The Afridev pump is mainly used because it is easy to train the community members to operate and maintain. The material for the pumps are easy available.

Ferro cement tanks

40cm3 Ferro cement tanks have been promoted for roof catchment. With the advent of plastic tanks, which are cheaper, there has been community interest to change but KWAHO has advocated Ferro cement tanks which are more durable. The ferro cement tanks keep the water cool as compared to plastic tanks.

Issues that came up about this technology include:

• Need to incorporate trap for first runoff

• KWAHO targets institutions for large roof surface

• Households do not benefit from this technology.

• There is need for other sizes in order to allow stored water to cover dry period


Ventilated improved Pit latrines (VIP)

VIP latrine is the pre dominant mode of sanitation promoted by KWAHO representing almost 60% of sanitation facilities done.

Main challenges of the technology include:

• collapsing weak soils where the water table is high

• Emptying equipment is sometimes not available when the pits are full. Most people would like to re use the structure when it is of permanent material

Ordinary pit latrines

Ordinary pit latrine constitutes about 30% of the facilities developed by KWAHO. These were mainly done in Nyanza province as a quick way of promoting use of latrines. Although the technology has known short comings like smell and flies, it is an appropriate intervention to change the culture from use of the bush to using latrines for sanitation

Pour flush

Pour flush toilets have been tried on pilot basis at the coast. Their high consumption of water makes them in appropriate for rural areas

KWAHO uses the following technologies in its projects: